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Friendship – a term representing many different types of relationships

Recently, I’ve been fortunate enough to find a group of people who enjoy gathering for a focused discussion on a topic. Last week some of us, most of whom I had never met, convened at a mutual friend’s home to have a meal and discuss friendship. I love events like this in part because the type of people it attracts: people who want to deeply explore a fundamental aspect of life with no pretense of expertise, but simply an openness to share and learn. The day after, I wrote down thoughts stimulated at or after the discussion and I used these notes to write this article. While friendship is something I have always valued highly in my life, I can’t think of a time where I examined it with any depth. As I write to you now, a week after the event took place, I can tell you that I feel I learned a lot about this important concept through this exercise.

 

Let’s Start with the Event

Here is the question presented by my friend and organizer, Tim Chang, at the beginning of the evening:

How do you conceptualize and prioritize friendship (or your most intimate community / tribe) in your life, and how has this evolved for you over the years?

We didn’t cover all aspects of this question, but using it as a starting place helped us launch into an interesting discussion. Soon after we got started, someone said, “A true friend is….” This got me thinking, where do friendships begin and does the term “friend” imply something discrete? It turns out, friendship is a hard idea to pin down. It is used broadly to describe very different types of relationships in our lives. And while a ‘true friend’ should mean anyone who meets the minimum requirements, its use signifies an aspect about friendship we all understand: not all friends are alike. Friendships vary in depth of closeness, by style, by motivations, etc., and some of the these factors are explored here.

 

Boundaries of the Friendship Idea

Colloquially, term “friend” is often used casually to simply imply knowing another person. The attribution of friendship by one person towards another has a lot to do with the individual, their openness and interest in other people, the impurity of the term “friend” – again, as stated, it’s a hard idea to pin down – and a lack of a generally recognized alternative positive term for someone with whom you share an association. I don’t have any issue with this situation, but for the purposes of this article and understanding what the true essence of real friendship is, it’s good to drawn distinctions, even if it’s just an academic exercise.

In order to understand what friendship is, it is good to know what it’s not. Does one-directional caring for someone constitutes friendship? For example, let’s say you hear a person’s story and feel empathy for them, but they do not know who you are. Can this dynamic constitute friendship? To me, it feels inadequate and leads to the idea that two willing participants are necessary for friendship to occur.

Does a two-way motivation to interact imply friendship? While necessary, I don’t think it is sufficient. This condition can simply be transactional, even if the nature of the interaction is ‘friendly’ and repeated. This relationship is ‘an association,’ but could easily turn into a friendship over time.

While two willing participants are necessary, what is it that uniquely distinguishes friendship beyond friendly interaction with associates? I think actual friendship requires a mutual interest in the wellbeing of the other beyond what each individual feels towards associates and strangers, respectively. This implies that friendship is a bar relative to you and the ease with which you can allocate internal resources to care for someone beyond the way you do for associates; in other words, your openness, readiness, and availability to form new bonds with new individuals.

If you are at a stable place in your life with lots of friends and little time, it may take unusual circumstances for a new person to break into your friend circle. Indeed, there are conditions where a zero sum game is at play: the allotment of time towards one friends means the subtraction of time for another. In other conditions, however, you may find yourself thrust into an unfamiliar circumstance (after a move for your job, travel, or a shake up of your friend structure due to something like a break up, etc) and now the threshold to become friends with new people may be lowered.

Friendship can be further assessed along a continuum of closeness or commitment. The difference between a ‘friend’ and a ‘close friend’ is determined by an individual’s estimation of the depth of that friendship beyond its minimum criteria. It’s interesting to think about whether friendships move back and forth along this depth spectrum with equal fluidity, or if it requires something like twice the energy to lessen a friendship once it’s reached a certain depth. This is conceptual, of course, but I also think possible asymmetry would depends on absolute depth. For example, a best friend situation may require that someone really screw up or repeatedly screw up in order to lessen the depth of the friendship, whereas earlier along the depth spectrum there may be more like a 1:1 relationship of energy to move the needle in either direction.

Now that we have a general idea of what friendship is and isn’t, and some thinking on depth variance, let’s discuss some conditions that lead to its development.

 

CONDITIONS & FACILITATORS

History

We know each other for a period of time and we have a history together. Maybe we have seen each other change and grow, and have had adequate time to see each other interact in different situations.

Proximity and Circumstance

We have shared the same physical environment, have interacted, and have some shared experiences.

Perhaps this person was in your grad school class or is the spouse of your friend, etc. Over time, you’ve gotten to know each other and would consider this person your friend. What does this type of relationship reveal about friendship? This is the type of friendship that may not have occurred if the circumstances didn’t bring you together regularly. There may not be significant overlap in personality resonance or interests (see harmony types below), but the action of sharing a space for a period time can foster enough shared experience to become friends.

 

Harmony Types

We have something in common that we care about, and talking about it together helps us bond and feel kinship.

The idea of harmony across intellectual interests, or personality, or passions, or hobbies, or causes is one that seems fosters a propinquity in people that goes beyond circumstance, and leads to a heightened motivation to interact. Certainly, many people who you do share circumstances with will meet the criteria for this quality of friendship, but not all of them. A shared passion for something can make it easier for people to relate to one another and to converse enthusiastically. Once the pattern of enthusiastic interaction happens, it may bleed over to other conversation topics outside of the shared passion. Or, it may not.

Depth of friendship may be further stimulated when thought coherence on a subject matter reflects a broader similarity in how two people view and interpret the world. I can imagine in this scenario two people having very different backgrounds and interests but still find harmony discussing topics and a preferred manner of interaction. I can also think of examples in my own life when there may be shared interests but conversation feels laborious and difficult. Conversely, it’s fun to meet someone with different interests and experiences but the conversation just flows. Therefore, a shared interest may only be a harbinger that the likelihood of interpersonal harmony may be present beyond the average person, but it’s no guarantee. You still need some interpersonal ‘chemistry’ beyond declared interests.

Recently, I have befriended two individuals with whom I share a high degree of personality harmony. With both people, there was an immediate improvisational, humorous nature to the interactions. In both cases, without knowing much about the other, we snapped into a conversation pattern more commonly experienced only with closest and oldest friends. Not everyone with whom I relate to in this way became a lifelong friend, but I believe these conditions advance friendship because there is flow, or a state of interaction that feels easy, and is mutually uplifting and energizing. These types of friendships can be very rewarding, partially because they can bring out my favorite version of me.

 

Version of You

It is interesting to consider the aspect of friendship where who or how they are brings out versions of you: the comedian, the thinker, the mentor, the student, the celebrator, the conservative, the liberal, etc. I believe we seek different types of people in our life so that we get to play all roles of our self. In fact, while a relationship may facilitate a dominant aspect of you, relationships are dynamic, and with each individual, you get to play multiple roles to varying degrees. Consider this mentor-student switching example: a dance instructor mentors a student of the dance floor, and when class is over, they go to coffee, the roles reverse, and the dance student offers business advice to the dance instructor. Also, person-version dynamics can change over time as the the individuals in question gain new experiences both as individuals and together.

Person-version dynamics can be the cause of frustration when you’re seen as an older, outdated version of yourself. An extended friend group of mine experienced friction due to this. This group of men all met as freshmen in college. Their roles amongst the group firmed up over the first year of meeting. Years later, even when these individuals were qualitatively different people, there was still some expectation by the friends to perform in their antiquated roles. Meeting most of the group at a later time, I could see individuals lamenting how their version identity in the group did not adapt with their own personal growth. Identity- perception stagnation can interfere with the continuation of friendships so it’s a good idea to try to see your friends for who they are now instead of just as the person whom you met originally.

 

Showing Up

A ‘good friend’ is commonly someone who recognizes that when things ‘get real,’ and despite distance or even existing differences, their care for you shines through and they show up. People, however, show varying capacities for care-taking of others. Some people may be very willing to show up even when the existing degree of friendship is not especially deep. Conversely, some people may be uncomfortable playing a caregiver role and be unable to show up in a time of need even when they care for you deeply.

A more banal version of showing up, however, can be just as important as those who are there for you during a crisis. This version of showing up relates to a person’s enthusiasm to participate in your life. Who you call to relax with on Sundays is partly based on who you think will say ‘yes’ when invited. One friend of mine has never said yes to one of my invitations and its made me question the friendship. This friend, however, continues to invite me to hang out and so I believe there is a genuine interest by them to spend time together. I’ve come to understand that it’s just the nature of this relationship. I accept and enjoy it for what it is and what it’s not. Not all friendships need to fit the same mold, and so it can be useful to accept certain dynamics for what they are, even if they are imperfect or unusual.

 

Vulnerability

Vulnerability can accelerate friendship, and this can be facilitated by a mediator or can be self generated. Imagine you’re at a dinner party and the host asks the table a question: tell us about the first time you had sex? Each person responds and after some laughter and blushing, the people know each other more deeply; even if that information was coerced by the social setting. Self-generated vulnerability likely reflects a different degree of friendship readiness. Seeking out a friend to discuss private matters signifies a willingness to explore a deeper relationship. Either way, being vulnerable can accelerate depth of friendship especially when it’s met with kindness and reciprocal openness. Indeed, navigating this in my mind helped me connect to the fact that a part of friendship requires a co-leveling up of the investment in one another. You offer a bit about yourself, a little is offered back in return, and that process continues to a natural stability point for the relationship.

Vulnerability can also help reveal the person behind their personal brand, which is a more idealized representation of a person (think LinkedIn photo vs. you sitting on the couch alone watching a movie). Personal brands attempt to signal to the world your distinguishing characteristics, a part of which is to differentiate you from others. Vulnerabilities, however, can help people connect to shared commonalities, and commonalities help us relate, not differentiate.

 

Pattern Disruption

This idea, brought up by my friend Gabe Luna-Ostaseski, is one about how to shake people into a state of better receptivity for new friendships to occur, or for existing friendships to deepen. Putting someone into a situation that is unexpected, or one that lowers inhibitions (like costumes at halloween), can create openness by jostling someone out of patterned thinking and responding, and can help someone move from the differentiate mind frame to the relate mind frame. Offsite work outings attempt to leverage pattern disruption to facilitate greater closeness between people, some of whom may only relate through work. Novel environments can reveal new sides of you to others, and different sides of others to you, and if you’re working towards a shared goal, you may feel enhanced kinship. The lesson here is that seeking new contexts, new environments, or working at something together can put you into a more receptive state (not always) for friendship to occur.

 

Keeping Old Friends, Making New Ones, and Ending Others

Over a lifetime, the friendship tree continues to evolve. This evolution happens organically and sometimes actively. To me, the value of maintaining close friendships is self evident. We are social beings and having people in your life that know you well, and whom you know well, can help you relate better to everyone, and understand yourself better.  But old friendships can also settle into comfortable patterns of interaction that don’t challenge you to grow. That risk for that to take place doesn’t mean it will. In fact, some relationships may be based on intellectual challenge and stimulation for self exploration but within a comfortable space. Both versions of old friends are possible so it may be wise to assess your friend group and make sure you have enough representation of different friendship types in your ‘inner circle.’

I also think there is value to being open to new friends at anytime. Making new friends as a busy adult may feel burdensome. But remember, different people allow for different versions of you to express themselves. Additionally, if through constant experience you become slightly different version of you, making new friends allows for your newest self to interact without antiquated person-version bias that happens with friends formed at a different time in your life; even last year. Also, interacting with new people helps you better understand the newest version of you. Is it good version or is it farther from your idealized state? Seeing the ‘you’ who interacts with the world today can be illuminating to where you are in your own personal evolution.

Lastly, while it’s very useful to make new friends and to keep old ones, we shouldn’t feel obligated to keep all of them. Yes, some friendships will organically disintegrate for myriad reasons. The more challenging question is whether to actively prune friendship that are active in your life. Recently, I have pruned a few friendships and the nature of those prunings were different. One pruning happened by me simply recognizing that I no longer enjoy this individual’s company. I don’t have the desire to let this person know that I how I feel, but I will not be making an effort to maintain the friendship any longer.

The other pruning required that I address the issue directly. I basically had to say, ‘I no longer consider you a friend and I do not want you to contact me again.’ Luckily, I haven’t had to do this many times in my life. It felt shitty and liberating at the same time. Ultimately, I found myself on the receiving end of their misplaced frustration one too many times. I have a lot of responsibilities in my life and I don’t need to include people who are actively working against me, even if it’s a cry for help. The relationship dynamic was not serving either of us and so I decided to move on. This was hard but necessary, and by pruning some relationships you have more time for others. I’m definitely not recommending giving up on friends at the first sign of inconvenience, but rather, it’s just good to recognize the reality of your relationships, sometimes making consolidations for idiosyncrasies, and far more often than not helping friends get through challenging situations, but sometimes very consciously moving on. Like I said, it’s been a very rare occurrence to have to directly break up with a friend, but I’m glad I have had the courage to do it in some instances.

 

Final Thoughts

Wow! As I sit here writing, I realize there are so many more examples to explore that highlight diverse aspects of friendship relationships. Maybe I’ll write more in another post on the same subject in the future as I have time to think and reflect on what I have and haven’t written here, especially after community input. I’m sure there are a lot of ideas that I am not thinking of, nor was this an attempt to be comprehensive, but it was fun and interesting to think about this topic that has affected nearly my entire life with some significant thought, and an intention to understand better.

In the end, the exercise of thinking about friendship was helpful. And to go back and respond to parts of the original question for the dinner party – How do you conceptualize and prioritize friendship (or your most intimate community / tribe) in your life, and how has this evolved for you over the years? – I would say that I conceptualize friendship as two people with motivation to interact and whom share a advanced state of caring for the other. The motivational aspect of friendship are of both an external and internal nature. Self-focused motivations depends on where you are in life, who you are as a person, you’re own conscious or subconscious craving to be able to express all versions of who you are. Person-focused motivations depend on things like the interests of an individual, how they express their thoughts, the way they treat others and themselves, the degree to which you admire aspects of them, or feel you can play a care-taking or mentorship role, your perception of how they view you, and your estimation of how energized they are to interact with you. These and other factors come together to distinguish friends from other people you know.

One immediate benefit of writing out my thoughts is the recognition that we can sometimes place too much expectation on individual friends to fulfill all of our friendship needs. Certainly, a close friend may show a high degree of overlap of personality, interests, worldview, etc, but you don’t need one person to be everything. In fact, realizing that you get different value from different people may help accept good friendships for what they are, lessening internal needs for these relationships to be different, which may in fact help them deepen to their optimal place, and that idea is liberating.



  • Steve Brooks

    hi dan,

    nice post. for quite some time, i’ve noodled the idea of the focused-topic
    dinner party, but inertia (my relentless nemesis) has continued to thwart me.
    anyway, glad to hear that you have realized this idea.

    as i wade into senescence, i increasingly find myself pondering the concept of
    friendship (more to the point, the waning or loss of friendship). it seems
    clear to me that as we age, it becomes more difficult to forge the closeness
    that defines our dearest friendships. it’s simply harder to make new friends. in
    part, this is due to lessened opportunities for the sharing of significant life
    chapters and experiences. also seems that maintaining our extant close
    friendships becomes more difficult – probably for many reasons (geographic
    distance, reductions in energy, changes in mobility, distractions from
    data-glut, contraction of social activity, changes in individual world-views,
    to name a few).

    i’m learning to take the waning/loss of friendship less personally (one of the
    blessings of aging is that we forget to be as neurotic as our younger selves). seeing
    this more as a drifting apart of the floating islands we inhabit. the bonds may
    still exist, but eventually, our strings are not long enough to connect the
    cans. we can try shouting, but alas, our voices have softened. however, all is
    not lost — on occasion, the capricious currents bring the islands within our
    shouting distance and bless us with that most pleasant surprise of
    reconnection.

    your old (literally) friend,
    steve

    p.s. how come you never call?

    • danpardi

      Hi Steve! Pleasant surprise and thanks for commenting here. I want to reply but your excellent comment is gone. Did you take it down?

      • Steve Brooks

        hey dan,
        i was trying to edit it (on re-reading, i felt i was stating the obvious) and somehow deleted it. i thought of you recently and decided to check out the dansplan site. very impressive, i must say. hope you and samara are doing well.

        best,

        steve

        • danpardi

          Steve, I don’t think it was stating the obvious at all. Actually, a lot of my post does just that, but that can be really valuable sometimes. Can you repost please?!?! I still have what you wrote. Email me if you need it. Thanks for the comments on the site. I’d love to connect again soon!

          • Steve Brooks

            well, if you insist…

            hi
            dan,

            nice post. for quite some time, i’ve noodled the idea of the focused-topic dinner party, but inertia (my relentless nemesis) has continued to thwart me. anyway, glad to hear that you have realized this idea.

            as i wade into senescence, i increasingly find myself pondering the concept of friendship (more to the point, the waning or loss of friendship). it seems clear to me that as we age, it becomes more difficult to forge the closeness that defines our dearest friendships. it’s simply harder to make new friends. in part, this is due to lessened opportunities for the sharing of significant life chapters and experiences. also seems that maintaining our extant close
            friendships becomes more difficult – probably for many reasons (geographic distance, reductions in energy, changes in mobility, distractions from data-glut, contraction of social activity, changes in individual world-views, to name a few).

            i’m learning to take the waning/loss of friendship less personally (one of the blessings of aging is that we forget to be as neurotic as our younger selves). seeing this more as a drifting apart of the floating islands we inhabit. the bonds may still exist, but eventually, our strings are not long enough to connect the cans. we can try shouting, but alas, our voices have softened. however, all is not lost — on occasion, the capricious currents bring the islands within our shouting distance and bless us with that most pleasant surprise of reconnection.

            your old (literally) friend.

            steve

            p.s.
            how come you never call?

          • danpardi

            Thanks @disqus_zmM76g285x:disqus! I think you have some very important points here. Do you think technology can help with maintaining friendships in situations like what you’ve described? IN other words, do you enjoy using things like Facebook, etc?

          • Steve Brooks

            well, the tech tools clearly facilitate connectivity. but they may also emphasize quantity over meaning and ease over effort. “whad’ya mean i don’t have any friends – have you seen my numbers on FB and twitter?” “whad’ya mean i don’t keep in touch – didn’t you get my text when your mom died?”

            nope, i’m neither a technophobe nor a luddite. just think we have to be mindful of using tools wisely and skillfully. i could certainly do a better job.

            i think effort and intent are the rate-limiting steps in maintaining real friendships.

          • danpardi

            I totally agree, @disqus_zmM76g285x:disqus. With some friends, at this point in my life, I would probably have no connectivity to – like for example, some high school friends whom I really like but just haven’t seen in twenty years – it’s nice to have some connection and follow events in their live, even if it’s just through viewing posts and the occasional “like” or “poke.” But, I know it can be problematic too. I know many friends who just had to give up on social media for a while because using it made them sad for a various reasons.

            I do wonder how improvements in technology design, and a user base of people comfortable and familiar with it, will change how we age. For reasons you eloquently explained, drifting away from your friend group happens with aging. I’ve also seen older people thrive when then go to an home with other older people and now they have a community in their immediate vicinity. A few older people have told me that they were happier than then have been in years once they moved to a home: a community where there was way more socializing and social support. Of course, not all home experiences are like this but my hope is that we can identify best scenarios and make those experiences broadly available, and helps us stay connected to our ‘tribe’ throughout life.

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